If Pandora appears suspended between the roles of Eve and of Pygmalion’s creation in Voltaire’s work, in Charles-Pierre Colardeau’s erotic poem Les Hommes de Prométhée (1774) she is presented equally as a love-object and in addition as an unfallen Eve: Having been fashioned from clay and given the quality of “naïve grace combined with feeling”, she is set to wander through an enchanted landscape. Best known in the end for a single metaphorical attribute, the box with which she was not even endowed until the 16th century, depictions of Pandora have been further confused with other holders of receptacles – with one of the trials of Psyche,[72] with Sophonisba about to drink poison[73] or Artemisia with the ashes of her husband. The Hesiodic myth did not, however, completely obliterate the memory of the all-giving goddess Pandora. A.H. Smith,[25] however, noted that in Hesiod's account Athena and the Seasons brought wreaths of grass and spring flowers to Pandora, indicating that Hesiod was conscious of Pandora's original "all-giving" function. ", The more famous version of the Pandora myth comes from another of Hesiod's poems, Works and Days. Hesiod. Vase paintings and literary texts give evidence of Pandora as a mother earth figure who was worshipped by some Greeks. After Hephaestus does so, Athena dresses her in a silvery gown, an embroidered veil, garlands and an ornate crown of silver. would not have omitted describing such an important detail. "Scatter-brained [of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he had formed." [35] In one case it was part of a decorative scheme painted on the ceiling at Petworth House by Louis Laguerre in about 1720. 177–194, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 11:22. [74] Nevertheless, her very polyvalence has been in the end the guarantor of her cultural survival. An independent tradition that does not square with any of the Classical literary sources is in the visual repertory of Attic red-figure vase-painters, which sometimes supplements, sometimes ignores, the written testimony; in these representations the upper part of Pandora is visible rising from the earth, "a chthonic goddess like Gaia herself. However, the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, fragment #5, had made a "Pandora" one of the daughters of Deucalion, and the mother of Graecus by Zeus. [50] In the succeeding century that desire to learn was equated with the female demand to share the male prerogative of education. [18] The phrase "Pandora's box" has endured ever since. Le mythe de Pandore. Her other name—inscribed against her figure on a white-ground kylix in the British Museum[4]—is Anesidora (Ancient Greek: Ἀνησιδώρα), "she who sends up gifts"[5] (up implying "from below" within the earth). L'entreligne, Paris 2011, distribution Daudin, Schlegel, Catherine and Henry Weinfield, "Introduction to Hesiod" in, Vernant, J. P. « Le mythe prométhéen chez Hésiode », in Mythe et société en Grèce ancienne, Paris, Maspéro, 1974, pp. [45] Each is the first woman in the world; and each is a central character in a story of transition from an original state of plenty and ease to one of suffering and death, a transition which is brought about as a punishment for transgression of divine law. They each add that the couple had a daughter, Pyrrha, who married Deucalion and survived the deluge with him. The mistranslation of pithos, a large storage jar, as "box"[15] is usually attributed to the sixteenth century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam when he translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Hesiod's pithos refers to a large storage jar, often half-buried in the ground, used for wine, oil or grain. In this version of the myth (lines 60–105),[8] Hesiod expands upon her origin, and moreover widens the scope of the misery she inflicts on humanity. Cf. [70], At the other end of the century, Gabriel Fauré’s ambitious opera Prométhée (1900) had a cast of hundreds, a huge orchestra and an outdoor amphitheatre for stage. "[26] Thus, Harrison concludes "in the patriarchal mythology of Hesiod her great figure is strangely changed and diminished. Problems and Perspectives", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pandora&oldid=984303714, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He commands Hephaestus to mold from earth the first woman, a "beautiful evil" whose descendants would torment the human race. [57] Such innocence, “naked and without alarm” in the words of an earlier French poet, portrays Pandora more as victim of a conflict outside her comprehension than as temptress. Hesiod's interpretation of Pandora's story went on to influence both Jewish and Christian theology and so perpetuated her bad reputation into the Renaissance. Our panel for Adobe Premiere Pro uploads to Vimeo and simplifies your workflow. This vase painting clearly depicts Hephaestus and Athena putting the finishing touches on the first woman, as in the Theogony. [32] But there have also been alternative interpretations of such scenes. Hesiod does not say why hope (elpis) remained in the jar. More commonly, however, the epithet anesidora is applied to Gaea or Demeter. The latter is also typical of Voltaire’s ultimately unproduced opera Pandore (1740). Pandore, tenant dans ses mains un grand vase, en souleva le couvercle, et les maux terribles qu'il renfermait se répandirent au loin. Prometheus had (fearing further reprisals) warned his brother Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus. Court-métrage de fin d'étude à l'ESEC, section montage - truquage Mythe de la boîte de Pandore - tourné sur fond vert… [7], Hesiod concedes that occasionally a man finds a good wife, but still (609) "evil contends with good. As a result, Hesiod tells us, the earth and sea are "full of evils" (101). [47] At the same period appeared a 5-act tragedy by the Protestant theologian Leonhard Culmann (1498-1568) titled Ein schön weltlich Spiel von der schönen Pandora (1544), similarly drawing on Hesiod in order to teach conventional Christian morality. [19] M. L. West writes that the story of Pandora and her jar is from a pre-Hesiodic myth, and that this explains the confusion and problems with Hesiod's version and its inconclusiveness. [65] Though it bears the title Pandora, what exists of the play revolves round Epimetheus’ longing for the return of the wife who has abandoned him and has yet to arrive. [52] There is a social message carried by these paintings too, for education, no less than expensive adornment, is only available to those who can afford it. [20][21] Hesiod's myth of Pandora's jar, then, could be an amalgam of many variant early myths. Her left arm is wreathed by a snake (another reference to the temptation of Eve) and that hand rests on an unstopped jar, Pandora's attribute. In the 15th-century AD an attempt was made to conjoin pagan and scriptural narrative by the monk Annio da Viterbo, who claimed to have found an account by the ancient Chaldean historian Berossus in which "Pandora" was named as a daughter-in-law of Noah in the alternative Flood narrative. La Boîte de Pandore Le mythe: La boîte de Pandore La morale Les personnages principaux Fonction du mythe Les Travaux et Les Jours – Hésiode La plus ancienne et complète version du mythe Pandore - 1ère femme humaine - créée par les dieux - épouse d' Epiméthée (titan) - signifie: [20] He writes that in earlier myths, Pandora was married to Prometheus, and cites the ancient Hesiodic Catalogue of Women as preserving this older tradition, and that the jar may have at one point contained only good things for humanity. [40] Its ideological purpose, however, was to demonstrate an equal society unified by the harmonious function of those within it. "all" and δῶρον, dōron, i.e. For details on the meaning of the name "Pandora" see "Difficulties of Interpretation" below. (Hesiod. For she brings with her a jar (which, due to textual corruption in the sixteenth century, came to be called a box)[10][11] [12] containing "countless plagues" (100). Représentation ancienne 1038 femmes représentées La vengeance de Zeus Représentation contemporaine Chaque côté est associé à une époque The Dinner Party/Le dîner festif Sophia: sagesse Athéna: « celle qui fait sortir les présents des profondeurs » dévoré par un aigle chaque jour He also writes that it may have been that Epimetheus and Pandora and their roles were transposed in the pre-Hesiodic myths, a "mythic inversion". In this retelling of her story, Pandora's deceitful feminine nature becomes the least of humanity's worries. [16] It can also refer to a funerary jar. Bishop Jean Olivier's long Latin poem Pandora drew on the Classical account as well as the Biblical to demonstrate that woman is the means of drawing men to sin. [33], In a late Pre-Raphaelite painting by John D. Batten, hammer-wielding workmen appear through a doorway, while in the foreground Hephaestus broods on the as yet unanimated figure of “Pandora”. TM + © 2020 Vimeo, Inc. All rights reserved. Over time this "all-giving" goddess somehow devolved into an "all-gifted" mortal woman. She is no longer Earth-Born, but the creature, the handiwork of Olympian Zeus." This woman goes unnamed in the Theogony, but is presumably Pandora, whose myth Hesiod revisited in Works and Days. It has been argued that it was as a result of the Hellenisation of Western Asia that the misogyny in Hesiod's account of Pandora began openly to influence both Jewish and then Christian interpretations of scripture. Prometheus moulds a clay statue of Minerva, the goddess of wisdom to whom he is devoted, and gives it life from a stolen sunbeam. [37], In between these two had come James Barry’s huge Birth of Pandora, on which he laboured for over a decade at the turn of the nineteenth century. Outside the palace, a high wind is bending the trees. H.J. "All-Gift"], because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread" (81–2).[9]. [36] William Etty’s Pandora Crowned by the Seasons of a century later is similarly presented as an apotheosis taking place among the clouds. Accompanying an illustration of her opening the lid of an urn from which demons and angels emerge is a commentary that condemns “female curiosity and the desire to learn by which the very first woman was deceived”. [69], In England the high drama of the incident was travestied in James Robinson Planché’s Olympic Revels or Prometheus and Pandora (1831), the first of the Victorian burlesques. Get your team aligned with all the tools you need on one secure, reliable video platform. [17] Erasmus, however, translated pithos into the Latin word pyxis, meaning "box". Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): http://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/... (external link) As before, she is created by Hephaestus, but now more gods contribute to her completion (63–82): Athena taught her needlework and weaving (63–4); Aphrodite "shed grace upon her head and cruel longing and cares that weary the limbs" (65–6); Hermes gave her "a shameless mind and a deceitful nature" (67–8); Hermes also gave her the power of speech, putting in her "lies and crafty words" (77–80) ; Athena then clothed her (72); next Persuasion and the Charites adorned her with necklaces and other finery (72–4); the Horae adorned her with a garland crown (75). [34] There were also earlier English paintings of the newly created Pandora as surrounded by the heavenly gods presenting gifts, a scene also depicted on ancient Greek pottery. L'Espérance seule resta. "Yet Pandora is unlikely to have brought along the jar of ills from heaven, for Hes. For example, the Bibliotheca and Hyginus each make explicit what might be latent in the Hesiodic text: Epimetheus married Pandora. In Greek mythology, Pandora (Greek: Πανδώρα, derived from πᾶν, pān, i.e. For Harrison, therefore, Hesiod's story provides "evidence of a shift from matriarchy to patriarchy in Greek culture. La Estatua de Prometeo (1670) by Pedro Calderón de la Barca is made an allegory in which devotion to learning is contrasted with the active life. The pattern during the 19th century had only repeated that of the nearly three millennia before it. [51] Again, Pietro Paolini’s lively Pandora of about 1632 seems more aware of the effect that her pearls and fashionable headgear is making than of the evils escaping from the jar she holds. However, his patron Minerva descends to announce that the gods have gifted Pandora with other qualities and that she will become the future model and mother of humanity. But on the front of the chest, a medallion showing the serpent wound about the tree of knowledge recalls the old interpretation of Pandora as a type of Eve. This initiates a debate among the gods whether a creation outside their own work is justified; his devotion is in the end rewarded with permission to marry his statue. Record and instantly share video messages from your browser. [13] Hesiod closes with a moral (105): there is "no way to escape the will of Zeus. After humans received the stolen gift of fire from Prometheus, an angry Zeus decides to give humanity a punishing gift to compensate for the boon they had been given. This comes out in portrayals of Pandora as a young girl, as in Walter Crane’s “Little Pandora” spilling buttons while encumbered by the doll she is carrying,[53] in Arthur Rackham’s book illustration[54] and Frederick Stuart Church’s etching of an adolescent girl taken aback by the contents of the ornamental box she has opened. It was based in part on the Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus but was rewritten so as to give the character of Pandore an equal part with his. Please enable JavaScript to experience Vimeo in all of its glory. Jeffrey M. Hurwit has interpreted her presence there as an "anti-Athena." [55] The same innocence informs Odilon Redon’s 1910/12 clothed figure carrying a box and merging into a landscape suffused with light,[56] and even more the 1914 version of a naked Pandora surrounded by flowers, a primaeval Eve in the Garden of Eden. [38] Well before that he was working on the design, which was intended to reflect his theoretical writings on the interdependence between history painting and the way it should reflect the ideal state. According to this, Pandora opened a jar (pithos) (commonly referred to as "Pandora's box") releasing all the evils of humanity. [59] There too the creator of a statue animates it with stolen fire, but then the plot is complicated when Jupiter also falls in love with this new creation but is prevented by Destiny from consummating it. In two of these she was presented as the bride of Epimetheus; in the two others she was the wife of Prometheus. It was used as a vehicle to illustrate the prevailing ideologies or artistic fashions of the time and eventually became so worn a coinage that it grew confused with other, sometimes later, stories. When she opens it, Jupiter descends to curse her and Prometheus, but Hope emerges from the box and negotiates their pardon. However, according to others Pandora more properly means "all-giving". Another point to note about Calderón’s musical drama is that the theme of a statue married by her creator is more suggestive of the story of Pygmalion. It is in fact a philosophical transformation of Goethe's passion in old age for a teenaged girl. One item, however, did not escape the jar (96–9): Only Hope remained there in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for ere that, the lid of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis-holding Zeus who gathers the clouds. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. In view of such evidence, William E. Phipps has pointed out, "Classics scholars suggest that Hesiod reversed the meaning of the name of an earth goddess called Pandora (all-giving) or Anesidora (one-who-sends-up-gifts). Hesiod elaborates (590–93): For from her is the race of women and female kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth.[6]. Robert Graves, quoting Harrison,[27] asserts of the Hesiodic episode that "Pandora is not a genuine myth, but an anti-feminist fable, probably of his own invention." [22] Certain vase paintings dated to the 5th century BC likewise indicate that the pre-Hesiodic myth of the goddess Pandora endured for centuries after the time of Hesiod. The main English commentary on Works and Days states that Hesiod shows no awareness [of this]. Liam Lennihan,"The Writings of James Barry and the Genre of History Painting", Routledge 2017, Online version at the Perseus Digital Library, "Periklean Athens and its Legacy. She is only differentiated from other paintings or statues of such females by being given the attribute of a jar or, increasingly in the 19th century, a straight-sided box.

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